Class of 1999 (1990) Retrospective

SUMMARY
Beginning narration states that throughout the 1990s, violence in American high schools had spiraled out of control, with areas in most major cities being taken over by youth gangs, resulting in some schools shutting down.

In 1999, special areas known as “free fire zones” have discouraged police from entering out of fear. Seattle’s Lincoln High School is in the middle of a free fire zone, thus the Department of Education Defense (D.E.D.), a pilot special government agency, has been notified. Working with MegaTech head Dr. Bob Forrest, an experiment begins where three former military robots have become android educators. Forrest introduces school coach Mr. Bryles, History teacher Mr. Hardin, and Chemistry teacher Ms. Connors to the Board of Education. Impressed with the new teachers, new principal Miles Langford has announced that former delinquents who are imprisoned will be released as part of the new experiment, which would allow new methods of discipline from the new teachers.

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One such delinquent is Cody Culp, a member of the Blackhearts gang. Out of prison, Cody has decided to lay low and avoid any gang warfare, especially with the rivals Razorheads, led by Hector. After a car chase, Cody, his younger adopted brother Sonny and his younger biological brother Angel make it to school. Sonny is taken in by the new school guards after he confronts them as they check the car for weapons or drugs. Blackheart member Curt, who thanks to Angel learns Cody no longer wants to be in a gang, informs Cody that if he is not with them, then he is against them. Still, Cody sticks to laying low and attends class. In chemistry class, Ms. Connors attempts calmly talk down Hector and another Razorhead. When the two Razorheads attempt to confront Ms. Connors, she uses fighting skills to take them down and make them sit in their seats. This pleases Forrest and MegaTech, who are in the basement, disguised as a DED control center. When Mr. Hardin’s history class is interrupted by a fight between Curt and Razorhead member Flavio, Hardin resorts to using corporal punishment and puts the class in line. Returning home, Cody is shocked to find his brothers and his mother are addicted to the drug known as “edge”. Upset and angry, he leaves and goes on his motorcycle, returning home later that night.

The next day, Flavio attempts to woo Christie, Mr. Langford’s daughter, but when she resists his advances, he attempts to rape her. Cody, witnessing what is happening, fights off Flavio as well as Hector. Mr. Bryles, who sees the incident, puts Cody in a full nelson hold and takes him to the principal’s office. While Langford informs Cody that he technically violated his parole with the fight, he lets him off due to the fact that he did save Christie from being raped. Cody and Bryles head to physical education class, where Bryles, who is the coach, humiliates Blackheart member Mohawk while doing push-ups. When class is over, Bryles tells Cody to stay behind and begins to viciously beat him. Mohawk goes to his locker and takes some “edge” and grabs a gun. Cody, still being beaten, is seriously hurt when Bryles sees Mohawk with the gun. Bryles grabs the gun and breaks Mohawk’s neck, killing him instantly. MegaTech technicians Marv and Spence are in total shock when Forrest informs them that it was self-defense with a gun.

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When Sonny shows up late to Mr. Hardin’s class totally high on “edge”, Hardin takes him to his locker. Hardin grabs the locker door and pulls it out to find vials of “edge” in the locker. He proceeds to take the vials and force them in Sonny’s mouth and pummeling his head on the lockers. Hardin kills Sonny and upon his return to class, takes Sonny’s now bloodied cross and puts it in his pocket. Cody sees the cross as Hardin gives his lecture. When Langford confronts the three teachers about the death of Sonny, it soon becomes a cover-up to say Sonny died of a drug overdose. When Christie tries to convince Cody based on her father’s word about Sonny, Cody is angry and is convinced Hardin killed Sonny. Apologizing to Christie the next day, he tries to convince her that Hardin had something to do with Sonny’s death and the duo skip school for evidence. Christie and Cody have the teacher directory and learn that Hardin, Bryles, and Connors live in the same apartment. They break in and Cody finds the bloody cross. However, the trio of teachers arrive and catch the duo escaping. A chase ensues and ends up with the trio in the water. Having survived the car crash in the water, the trio decide to start a war between the Razorheads and the Blackhearts.

That evening, Cody and Angel once again bond over a game of basketball. When Angel, who has become a Blackheart, decides to stay behind, he is met by Bryles, Hardin, and Connors on his way home later that night. The trio chase down Angel. Bryles lifts up Angel and throws him against a wall and the trio ultimately kill him. Shortly after, Razorhead Noser is coming out of a local pizza place when he sees Connors. She kidnaps him and when the Razorheads are waiting for Noser, Noser is sent through the window of their hangout while on fire. Hector is convinced the Blackhearts did it and decide to start a war. The next morning, Cody goes to the Blackheart hangout, where he finds a dead Angel surrounded by the likes of Curt, Reedy, and Dawn. Dawn finds Angel’s basketball with a message written in blood. Cody, seething with revenge, decides he wants back in the gang.

That afternoon, a war ensues between the Razorheads and Blackhearts. However, Bryles, Hardin, and Connors intercept at various times, killing members from both gangs. When Cody and Reedy go inside an abandoned building to trap Hector, Hardin grabs Reedy through a wall and splits him in half with his bare hands. When Cody shoots at Hardin, he discovers he is not human. That night, Cody tries to tell the Blackhearts that Hardin was there and that he killed Reedy. Meanwhile, Langford has gotten wind of the situation and decides to have the program terminated. However, Dr. Forrest not only decides not to terminate the program, but tells Langford that the teachers must “kill the enemy”. Bryles grabs Langford by the throat and with brute force, sticks his fingers in Langford’s throat, killing him.

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Hector receives a call apparently from Cody saying he wants him one-on-one at the school entrance. Connors, kidnapping Christie, pretends to be Hector and calls Cody with the same proposition. When Dawn wonders why Hector would meet him at the school, the Blackhearts are finally convinced that the teachers are responsible. When Hector and Cody show up with both gangs, Cody attempts to tell Hector that it is not him he wants to kill. He tells Hector of the war the teachers have started. To prove he is right, Cody shows Hector Sonny’s bloody cross. The Razorheads and the Blackhearts decide to team up and take on the teachers, who are waiting in the school. While they look for Christie and the teachers, they soon learn of the real deal with the teachers. Ms. Connors’ arm becomes a flame thrower. Bryles’ arm becomes a missile launcher. While many Razorheads and Blackhearts fall victim to the teachers, Curt and Cody find Christie. There, they find Hardin. They attempt to shoot down Hardin. However, Hardin is too powerful as he grabs Cody with one hand and grabs Curt with his other hand, which has become a grip with a drill attached. Curt is killed by the drill. Hardin attempts to do the same to Cody when Cody reaches for a machine gun and shoots Hardin through the mouth numerous times, destroying him instantly.

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Cody and Christie see Ms. Connors and are chased to the chemistry lab. Cody, noticing that Connors has an exposed area of flammable gas, distracts her in time to grab an axe. When he throws the axe at the exposed area, he and Christie run out of the lab. Connors, unleashing the flame thrower, fatally explodes due to the flame hitting the gas. Hector, the only other survivor alongside Cody and Christie, meet up with the duo and are seen by Bryles. Hector and Christie provide a distraction while Cody grabs a bus and is able to run down Bryles at the school entrance. The bus explodes but all three are safe. When they hear a noise in the school, they go check it out. However, a now half-human, half-robot Bryles escapes from under the bus.

Hector, Cody, and Christie find Dr. Forrest who takes Christie hostage. When Cody tells Forrest it is too late, Forrest is convinced that he can somehow continue the project. When Hector attempts to shoot Forrest, he is shot and killed. Forrest then attempts to kill Cody, but Bryles comes up from behind him and rips his heart out, killing him instantly. Cody and Christie are at first overpowered by Bryles until Cody finds a forklift and impales Bryles. Christie grabs the nearest chain and puts it around Bryles’ neck with Cody using the forklift to lift the chain, decapitating the robotic Bryles. Cody and Christie, the only survivors, walk out of the badly damaged school in safety.

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DEVELOPMENT
No, this isn’t a strict sequel to Class of 1984. All the punks died at the end of that one, you’ll recall. And besides, juvenile delinquents lose much of their charm and novelty once they enter their 30s. “Well, that was the whole twist of Class of 1984,” answers writer/director Mark Lester, quietly touring the polished stone corridors as the production prepares to launch yet another day’s shooting. “I took the whole hardcore punk scene that was happening in England. Nobody had yet thought of them as contemporary juvenile delinquents, so we were way ahead of the parade. Now with this film, we’ll set a whole new tone, too, because it projects the future based on things in the news today. I mean, even in a calmer town like Seattle, there has been debate over whether kids should be suspended or expelled for bringing guns to school; in this movie, kids check their machine guns at the school’s door so that at the end of the day they get them back.”

“The writers’ strike was holding a lot of work up, so I jumped at this from a very early stage, “Allard recounts. “At first I estimated a $2 million effects budget, so they put me together with John Skipp and Craig Spector and we created some doable things. We rewrote the action scenes so that we could pull them off.

“I don’t know if you could call this a horror movie, really. Sure is violent though,” she adds, indicating her Uzi. All the gang members have weird costumes. Screenwriter Courtney Joyner, who happens to be visiting the set this day, explains, “Mark wrote the story that I adapted the original screenplay from. He was taking things from the news, and everybody a was talking gang colors, so we just developed that. The costumes look great. They’re like punk Hamlets.”

Joyner goes on to elucidate as best as possible the script’s intricate history. “I was recommended by Irwin Yablans, so I was the first writer,” he begins. “Mark and I wrote the script. Then they wanted revisions but I was unavailable, so they brought in Skipp & Spector, I believe. I later rewrote their draft. Then Abby Wool came in and did some glorious work, particularly with the dialogue. And then Mark had me do the final draft. So I was rewriting Abby’s rewrite of my rewrite of Skipp & Spector’s rewrite of my script. That’s Hollywood.”

Director Mark L. Lester had seen PRISON, and liked it very much, and Irwin Yablans recommended me to him to write the script. Mark’s partner at the time was Stanley Mann, so I worked with both of them, and there were a lot of drafts over a long period, but when we were finally in Seattle, about to shoot, it was me and Mark, working through the final stages, and we were a good fit; worked well together through the long process, which isn’t always the case, so that was a really fine thing. To get in creative synch with a director isn’t so easy – getting your scenes on the page the way they want to shoot it – that balance – and I reached it with Mark, like (hopefully) I did with Renny Harlin. – Screenwriter C. Courtney Joyner

PRODUCTION/BEHIND THE SCENES
“Originally, I wanted Malcolm to play the villain, the role that finally went to Stacy Keach,” Lester remarks. “But Malcolm said, ‘Well, I always play villains. He loved the part of the principal, so it’s kind of different to have him playing this liberal nice guy.”

Sitting off to one side, with a large prosthetic robot arm attached to one shoulder and a newspaper opened in his lap, one older actor quietly dismisses the conversation he has just overheard. Considering that this veteran thespian has been making movies regularly since before many of these youngsters were born, one might be tempted to trust John P. Ryan’s judgment.

“For one thing,” Ryan intones between gulps of java, “you can’t control that. I just take the position that whatever unfolds, so be it, you know? I wouldn’t take the route of wanting or denying or championing or even judging it. Once you’ve been in the business awhile, you learn to let it go and see what happens. Too much of it is just chance.”

Ryan knows what he’s talking about, having learned it first-hand since his sharing his screen debut with fellow unknown Dustin Hoffman in 1967’s kidnapping comedy The Tiger Makes Out.

“When I first started doing this, people used to talk about getting typecast because of gangster pictures,” he reminisces. “Had I concerned myself with that stuff, I might have missed out on some terrific films, like Dillinger, which John Milius wrote and directed. This was just before Francis Coppola made gangster movies more respectable [Ryan later worked for Coppola on The Cotton Club]. Around that time, I also did a terrific picture with Cliff Gorman and Joe Bologna called Cops and Robbers, and I played a Mafia character. It was a tremendous movie, even though it didn’t do too well.’

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The casting of CLASS just knocked me out – when I went to location, the only person I knew we had was Malcolm MacDowell – which was so cool – then, Stacy, and John P. Ryan – a personal hero because of RUNAWAY TRAIN – just a great guy, great acting presence – and then, Pam Grier! Wow. – Screenwriter C. Courtney Joyner

“Between the images of drug addiction, which is a major concern not only in America but in the world community now, and the school process where students have lost interest in the learning experience because of the world’s increasing hopelessness, it seemed to me that this was a movie with something to say,” explains Ryan of his decision to join the cast. “Particularly since it’s working from a genre that mimics some kind of fantastical projection of how we might be at the turn of the century, if we keep accelerating at the rate we’re accelerating now. From that point of view, this is a very contemporary project.”

Interestingly, this does not mark Ryan’s maiden voyage in a robotics-based sequel; that honor goes to Futureworld, the Peter Fonda vehicle that followed up Westworld. Don’t feel bad if you can’t recall much about the picture; neither can Ryan. “Geez, that goes back so long ago that I can’t even remember it,” he laughs. “I couldn’t give you a comment on it. It feels like a thousand years ago.

You know, some memories stay vivid, others just… I guess nothing really unpleasant happened on that production, so it doesn’t stick in my mind.” Ryan’s familiar face has turned up in countless action films like Runaway Train, Fatal Beauty and Death Wish 4. The actor’s place in the hearts and minds of monster devotees was earned by Larry Cohen’s quintessential killer baby epic It’s Alive! Ryan played the disgusted dad of a mutant infant that rips up Los Angeles. “It’s Alive! was different from other monster stories in one way,” Ryan muses. “With Dr. Frankenstein and all the versions of that character, you never have a reconciliation between the monster and the monstermaker. In It’s Alive!, not only does he who made the monster spare it, but he owns up to creating it, and they reconcile.”

The assignment meant enough to Ryan that he reprised his role for It Lives Again three years later. “Larry Cohen’s enterprising, consuming and ambitious,” Ryan praises. “He gets a lot of mileage out of his art.” Despite this, Ryan was not coaxed back for a third shot on It’s Alive III: Island of the Alive. “Enough’s enough,” Ryan grumbles good-naturedly.

“Horror is a great medium,” he concludes. “If it’s done with skill and forcefulness, it’s as good as film gets. It represents denied or disowned or unacknowledged darkness. That’s where nightmares come out, that’s where monsters are born. It’s fabulous to touch things subliminally in the subconscious, things that have always been there. In a funny way, it’s like American sports. If we didn’t have people out there spitting their lungs out at football and hockey games, we would have a psychopathic society. It releases a lot of pent-up emotions, all kinds of feelings, and it puts people in touch with things they weren’t aware of themselves.’

The script has Patrick Kilpatrick, as gym teacher Mr. Bryles, disciplining students via a missile launcher concealed in his forearm. Consequently, the towering but soft-spoken actor is contending with prosthetic and mechanical appliances. “Naturally, it’s not the most comfortable thing in the world, wearing braces and harnesses and extra appendages,” he allows. “It’s similar to doing a period piece in armor. If the shots work out, then it’s worth it. Had I my druthers, I would just act in regular clothes all the time, but the movies don’t work that way.”

SPECIAL EFFECTS
CLASS OF 1999’s original budget for special effects had been set at just $500,000, most estimates, including All Effects’, leaned toward $2 million. Like any Hollywood veteran, however, Allard offered the film’s producers a compromise: $1.3 million for the effects, in exchange for some creative input, points in the film’s profits, and a chance for Allard to direct the second unit effects work. “It’s a good deal for me,” said Allard. “Directing is what I want to move toward. In the end, I directed 30 days, because my stuff was working real well.”

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Preparing the extensive makeup and special effects is Eric Allard whose work on the SHORT CIRCUIT films, THE BLOB, and Michael Jackson’s MOONWALKER has established him as one of the premiere experts of mechanical and robotic effects. For CLASS OF 1999 Allard takes his telemetric technology developed for SHORT CIRCUIT II one step further by combining it with extensive prosthetic makeup effects, supervised by Rick Stratton.

“Yeah, we’ve got a lot of transmission fluid,” FX artist Rick Stratton beams. “We are taking more of a science fiction approach than splatter. These androids withstand a great deal of abuse, so instead of doing blood effects and having them cut for an R rating, we’ve got this green stuff. Actually, they’ve allowed me to come up with concepts. It’s not so much limiting because it pushes us to be creative, to make sure we’re not repeating gags that have been done before.

“We’ve come up with ways to avoid human redness,” Stratton continues. “Like when one character gets killed, the android just sinks his fingers into the guy’s throat like it was butter, and then wham! onto the ground. Rather than rip the throat out, we left it with fingerholes, like a bowling ball. Someone else gets punched, and the impression of the fist stays in his chest. Things like that are distortions or illusions, much more disturbing than pumping blood. Anyone can squirt blood around.”

“Those things you’re looking at are dummy props, for shots where we don’t need the robotics,” he says. “We want to keep down the amount of telemetry, because it’s a combination of bun raku and remote control. You need one guy doing the legs and another the arms, and there’s a million working parts that can screw up on you.”

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“Integrating makeup effects with the robotics is something I’ve wanted to do for some time,” said Allard. “It’s been a great opportunity to throw my hat into the makeup effects arena. We’ve really come up with something unusual that I think for the first time will be a nice blend of mechanics and makeup effects.”

This blending of special effects disciplines will be further enhanced through the use of Allard’s telemetric systems. Quite simply the process involves a suit equipped with a series of motion sensors. These sensors, in turn, broadcast their

The effects centerpiece of Lester’s tale of students revolting against oppressive android teachers is the climactic destruction of Coach Bryles, a pitched battle straight out of James Cameron’s THE TERMINATOR. According to Allard, the Bryles sequence is one of the most extensive uses of makeup and mechanical effects ever put on film. Where THE TERMINATOR resorted to a small stop-motion puppet and rear projection, Bryles was done live-action. “The standard way to have Bryles walk would be to create a pixilated miniature or a go-motion model and then matte him walking across the floor,” Allard said. “But we did it live-action. We built a full size, remote-control, telemetrically-operated cyborg.”

“It worked really well.” Lester said of Allard’s Bryles effect. “We had various faces on the puppet-smiling, angry, mad, etc.-so we kept changing them as the puppet walked. It was quite ingenious what Eric did with these puppet heads.”

Allard’s first task was to lock himself in a room with All Effects storyboard artist Bud Lewis and plan each of the more than 400 major effects shots. Allard worked with Lester to alter the script when necessary. “We went through every story board and talked about the possibilities,” said Allard. One of my strengths is that I can get an instant grasp on what needs to be done mechanically to pull off an effect cinematically. I’m good at working with people. If they’ve got a better idea than I do, I have no problem with that. We just cross out what I had and write in what they want to do. The most important thing is that we’re all in sync.”

Allard enlisted engineer Ron Griffin, electronic expert Ron Zarro, model specialist Ron Thornton, makeup supervisor Rick Stratton, and floor effects coordinator Joe Ramsey, and spent two weeks designing the effects. “The first thing we did was take photographs of our actors against a grid,” said Allard. “Then we took body impressions and worked within the dimensions of the individual. Once you have identified size constraints -the diameter, the distance from shoulder to elbow and elbow to wrist-it really becomes a straight-forward engineering problem: you’ve got a rocket launcher that weighs three pounds and you’ve got to make it move like a human arm.”

Among the engineering problems Allard encountered were a flame-throwing arm, a drill-arm, a claw arm, and a variety of makeup and stunt effects, like the scene in which teacher Pam Grier gets ripped apart to reveal her robotic innards. Each sequence was approached with the same meticulous planning and preparation, including cardboard model prototypes.

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“When you use a 3-D model, it [the work) goes quickly,” said Allard. “We never spend more than a couple weeks identifying the sizes, strengths, and basic geometry. Once we have that, we identify where fulcrum points will have to be, whether we’ll use a pulley or lever or servo, then rate the components in order of their necessity and start building.”

At the peak of production, All Effects had four mills and four lathes cranking out parts for CLASS OF 1999. At the same time, the makeup department was using the same plans to cast foam latex prosthetics and outer skins that would fit over the mechanisms. As the production was filmed almost entirely on location at an abandoned junior high school in Seattle, the All Effects crew had to be mobile. The majority of the effects sequences were scheduled for the last weeks of the shoot. As specific pieces were finished in Los Angeles, they would be shipped to Seattle in time for filming. “Thank God for Federal Express,” said makeup supervisor Rick Stratton. “Our whole effects facility went up there,” Allard added. “We had four semi-trailers crammed full of equipment. When we got to the school we converted a couple rooms into an effects studio and a makeup room.”

For the crucial Bryles cyborg, Allard expanded on the use of telemetrics he pioneered for SHORT CIRCUIT. Telemetrics replaces cable-controlled mechanisms with remote control technology. Telemetric servos in a costume worn by a puppeteer transmit movements to the Bryles robot. According to Allard, the technique increases the realism of the performance and saves money by decreasing the number of puppeteers necessary. “Obviously, if you have to deal with less people it becomes easier at a certain level,” Allard said, “but it ended up adding to the performance. The robot’s gesticulations were more in sync with what he was saying, because just one person wore the suit that controlled the upper body.”

Allard’s telemetric suits use the same Futaba transmitters that guide the flight of remote control model airplanes.

“There’s a potentiometer underneath a joystick on the standard Futaba transmitter that compares a signal from the joystick to the servo,” explained Allard. “By moving the stick you are creating a variable resistance. It’s always comparing that signal and keeping it the same. When you move the joystick the servo will move a proportional amount.”

Instead of joysticks, Allard’s potentiometers are connected to axes of movement on elbows, wrists, hands, etc. “We tie that in with parts we buy from Futaba,” said Allard. “Their radio transmission is pulse-code modulated on a dedicated frequency which means there’s a signal that locks-in each transmitter to each receiver so that you get very little interference. There are four different frequencies we are working with on one robot, all radio controlled. One puppeteer would handle the upper body, one the lower body and then we would have two people with transmitters for facial expressions and neck movements. It’s just incredible the amount of articulation you can get with just four puppeteers. Bryles really did come to life. It was just amazing to have this guy walking across the stage.

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While Bryles required state of the art technology, Allard and his crew were not shy about employing more traditional effects techniques. One sequence required the hand of the robot played by Pam Grier to melt, revealing a rocket launcher beneath. “We do tricks to avoid optical work,” said Allard. “We did a time lapse shot of her hand melting, but with real time smoke.

“The amazing thing is that this isn’t done more often,” said Allard of his time and money-saving methods. “In the hey-day of motion control, from STAR WARS on, visual effects became so technical and so many motion control people came into the industry that a lot of the old filmmaking techniques got thrown by the wayside. My main focus on mechanical effects is to try and utilize some of these older techniques. I don’t take anything away from the visual effects guys. They are my heroes and I’d love to work with George Lucas or Boss Film and do a big picture where the visual effects complement the mechanical effects. I think the ILM style of visual effects definitely enhances a picture beyond what you can do with just mechanical effects. Yet it seems like I get the ones where they just don’t want to spend any money on visual effects. They want it all done live-action, usually for budgetary reasons.”

“I’ve had a great deal of control on this film, but it’s my first directing gig.” Allard points out. “I’m just cutting my teeth in some ways. As far as that goes, Mark Lester is the man to work with. He knows the parameters of low-budget filmmaking. If this were a big budget thing, we’d have 50 or 60 optical effects. But it isn’t Gone With the Wind. It’s Class of 1999, we’ve got $5.2 million, and we have to make every buck count. To my knowledge, this is the first time anyone’s done a cyborg film completely without opticals. I’m just a live-action guy,” he shrugs with a laugh.

Allard admitted it’s difficult knowing the work he achieved for $1.3 million is going to be compared with effects in films with ten times that budget. “This is a B picture,” he said. “They have special effects budgets of $10 or $20 million and we spent $7 million on the whole movie. We never had time to do camera tests and there were very few take twos, but by and large we got everything we wanted. My basic theory is that there’s nothing you can’t do with 50 good men and $2 million, and that’s the truth.”

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CAST/CREW
Directed by Mark L. Lester
Produced by Mark L. Lester
Screenplay by C. Courtney Joyner
Story by Mark L. Lester

Bradley Gregg as Cody Culp
Traci Lind as Christie Langford
John P. Ryan as Mr. Hardin
Pam Grier as Miss Connors
Patrick Kilpatrick as Mr. Bryles
Stacy Keach as Dr. Robert “Bob” Forest
Malcolm McDowell as Dr. Miles Langford
Joshua John Miller as Angel Culp
Darren E. Burrows as Sonny Culp
Sharon Wyatt as Janice Culp

Makeup Department
Brent Armstrong … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
Karoly Balazs … makeup artist (as Karoly ‘Charles’ Balazs)
Barney Burman … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
Rob Burman … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
Roberto Carlos … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
Mike Cobos … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
Ralph Cobos … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
Gunnar Ferdinandsen … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
Frankie Inez … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
Jeff Kennemore … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
Rolf John Keppler … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
Gábor Kernyaiszky … hair stylist (as Gabor Kernyaiszky)
Francesca Lacagnina … extra makeup artist
Matthew W. Mungle … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
Lesa Nielsen … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
David Quashnick … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
Richard Ruiz … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company
Rick Stratton … special effects makeup designer: All Effects Company
Robert Tharp … makeup effects crew: All Effects Company

Special Effects by
William Aldridge … special effects
Eric Allard … special effects producer
Tony Allard … special effects technician (as George ‘Tony’ Allard)
Gary D. Bierend … special effects technician
Ray Brown … special effects
Scott Forbes … special effects
Danny Gil … special effects
Bruce Khteian … special effects
Betty Pecha Madden … special effects wardrobe
Milton Riess … special effects crew
Andrew Sebok … special effects
Pamela Shaw … special effects wardrobe
Ron Thornton … special effects art director
Bruno Van Zeebroeck … special effects foreman / special effects
Richard Zarro … special effectsVisual Effects by
Eric Allard … visual effects supervisor
Eric J. Goldstein … special effects cinematographer

CREDITS/REFERENCES/SOURCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bulletproofaction
Cinefantastique v20n01-02
Fangoria#90
Fangoria#93
Gorezone#15

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